|The histories written from records held in the colonial archives are distortions in favour of those who ruled during colonial eras.
|Glissant, É. 1997. Poetics of Relation. Translated by Betsy Wing. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
|The direct translation of Isigubu means drum in isiZulu but can take many colloquial meanings such as song and sound. The term is always indexical to rhythm and is suggestive of the drum’s ability to create music that one can dance to. It is sometimes spelt as either Isi’gubu, Isigubhu or Sgubu (Sgubhu).
|In Postmodern Blackness (1990), celebrated feminist theorist bell hooks defines black subjectivity as a liberatory tool against essentialised notions of blackness that are not without racist stereotypes and prescriptions of an “authentic black identity”.
|Kolè is considered by many as a catalyst of the genre of Gqom music. He has put a lot of the local DJs producing Gqom on the international map. He started the label Gqom Oh! in 2016 as a way to capture the sounds of Durban and give local DJs label representation that they rarely enjoyed locally until the genre’s international following. Although Kolé created global visibility for Gqom, it was South African black artists that preceded him who pioneered the genre.
|This refers to archives that were established during the colonial period and how the knowledge and cultural production produced therein perpetuated justifications for colonialism.
|The initial title for the book was Musical Instruments of the Native People of South Africa first published in 1934.
|Said, E. 1978. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books.
|Hamilton, C. 1998. Terrific Majesty: The Powers of Shaka Zulu and the Limits of Historical Invention. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
|In 1886 the world’s largest gold rush began, subsequently leading to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa. This also led to the eventual Boer defeat in the Second Boer War (1899-1902), the loss of Boer autonomy and self-government, and total British rule in South Africa.
|Now FL Studio: is an electronic music-making program. It is notorious with Gqom producers because the software began first as a MIDI drum sequencer and has now transformed into a portable, easy-to-use recording studio with synths, drum machines and the ability to record vocals or live instruments all at once.
|Grime is a genre of Rap music that emerged from London in the early 2000s. It can be traced to earlier UK electronic music genres such as garage and jungle, while drawing significant influence from other global music genres like dancehall and hip hop. The genre is distinctly fast with syncopated breakbeats and often features a jarring electronic sound.
|Sgubhu Sa Pitori (also known as Direkere or Bacardi House) is a sub-kwaito/House genre that emerged in Pretoria from early 2000. The genre was a catalyst for electronic music in South African township with many attributing its success to Pretorian producers such as DJ Mujava, the late DJ Spoko and Machance to name a few. In fact, UK-born but South African-based producer, Jumping Back Slash famously tweeted a eulogy to DJ Spoko as a defining influence of Gqom music, precipitated by Bacardi House.
|Another word for Gqom.
|Borrowed from Gavin Steingo’s brilliant book titled: Kwaito’s Promise: Music and the Aesthetics of Freedom in South Africa (2016).
|Loxion Kulca became one of the hottest apparel brands of the early Kwaito generation. It was founded in 1997 by Sechaba Mogale and Wandi Nzimande who have said to be inspired by the urban ‘kulca’ (culture) and vibrancy of the ‘loxion’ (locations/townships). The brand – not as notorious as it was in its heydays – still supplies clothing to reputable retail stores in Southern Africa.
|Tsotsitaal and (Isi)Camtho is a creolised township slang borrowing from some of South Africa’s 11 official languages, including Afrikaans, Sestwana, Sesotho and Zulu to name a few. Tsotsi meaning criminal or gangster in Afrikaans is suggestive of the hybridised language as a lexicon first used and conceptualised by criminals to mask their criminally-incriminating conversations.
|A commercial talk show radio station based in Johannesburg.
|In The Social Life of Things:Commodities in Cultural Perspectives (1988) social anthropologist Arjun Appadurai explores how objects have social lives through the ability of “illuminat[ing] their human and social context”.
|Given museum studies’ relationship with imperialism and colonialism’s problematic agendas of ‘othering’, a self-reflexive turn of museum studies from the 1980s began, coining the institution’s critical reflection “New Museology”. This self-reflexivity allowed for the museum custodians to investigate their roles in a public institution of political ideology through discourses around post-colonialism, the “nation” as a construct, or the interpretation of “race” and “gender” as a social, ideological, and cultural construct amongst other contentions.
|The concept of the ‘decolonisation’ has a dated genealogy but in the context of this essay it specifically refers to the intellectual framework developed by Latin American thinkers and more broadly, scholars from the Global South. They have generated critical theory from the perspective of restoring full autonomy of the colonised and the oppressed. The phrase became increasingly popular in South Africa during the #RhodesMustFall and #FeesMustFall movements.
|In an article titled Surfing the Gqom Wave to oblivion (2017) art journalist, Kwanele Sosibo unpacks how a local documentary about Gqom erodes the genre’s staying power in the global (electronic) music scene. Asserting that compare the genre akin to “a wave” is to undermine its potential.
|In Born To Kwaito (2018) Sihle Mthembu explores Durban music’s relationship to the taxi industry and the culture of ‘ukugqoma’. He unpacks how Durban taxis would be excessively accessorised and Matric pupils would hire them for beach parties and dance competitions – most of them with extravagant sound systems to accommodate the loud sounds of Gqom that would serve as dancing tunes for the competitions.